The Optimal Duration of Exclusive BreastfeedingA Systematic Review
- 52 Pages
- January 1, 2002
- 1.81 MB
- 3890 Downloads
World Health Organisation
Breastfeeding, Health Policy, Nursing - Nutrition, Health & Fitness / Breastfeeding, Medical : Health Policy, Medical : Nursing - Nutrition, Consumer H
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To recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 4–6 months vs “about 6 months” has recently become more intense. Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to assess the effects on child health, growth, and development, and on maternal health, of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months File Size: 1MB.
The longstanding debate over the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding has centered on the so-called weanling's dilemma in developing countries: the choice between the known protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infectious morbidity and the (theoretical) insufficiency of breast milk alone to satisfy the infant's energy and micronutrient requirements beyond 4 months of age.
EXPERT CONSULTATION ON THE OPTIMAL DURATION OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING 2 In summary, the Expert Consultation concludes that exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months confers several ben-efits on the infant and the mother. However, exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months can lead to iron deficiency in susceptible infants.
In addition, the available dataFile Size: KB. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding for six months (versus three to four months, with continued mixed breastfeeding thereafter) reduces gastrointestinal infection and helps the mother lose weight and prevent pregnancy but has no long-term impact on allergic disease, growth, obesity, cognitive ability, or behaviour.
The results of two. A systematic review of current scientific evidence on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified and summarized studies comparing exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months, versus 6 months. An expert consultation was convened to review the scientific evidence on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding, formulate recommendation for practice on the optimal duration of exclusive.
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume ) Papers Table of contents (75 papers) About About these proceedings; Table of contents. Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding.
Front Matter. Pages PDF. The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Michael S. Kramer, Ritsuko Kakuma. GUIDING PRINCIPLE 1. Practise exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months of age and introduce complementary foods at 6 months of age ( days) while continuing to breastfeed Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months confers several benefits to the infant and the mother.
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Exclusive breastfeeding for six months (versus three to four months, with continued mixed breastfeeding thereafter) reduces gastrointestinal infection and helps the mother lose weight and prevent pregnancy but has no long‐term impact on allergic disease, growth, obesity, cognitive ability, or behaviour.
The results of two controlled trials and 21 other studies suggest that exclusive. The world’s health authorities recommend exclusive breastfeeding of all infants until six months of age . In spite of all the efforts deployed either as information, education, or training campaigns to promote mother’s milk as the best food for the infant, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding remains low .
World Health Organization The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Report of an Expert Consultation. World Health Organization: Geneva, Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; Cd Kramer MS, Kakuma R.
Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. CDC’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) is committed to increasing breastfeeding rates throughout the United States and to promoting and supporting optimal breastfeeding practices toward the ultimate goal of improving the public’s health.
Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding:Evidence and implications for public health. Review on which this evidence summary is based: Kramer, M.S., & Kakuma, R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (Issue 1), Art. optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified and summarized studies comparing exclusive breastfeeding for 4 to 6 months, versus 6 months, in terms of growth, infant iron status, morbidity, atopic disease, motor development, postpartum weight loss, and amenorrhea.
It. Summary: International health organizations recommend six months of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as optimal for infant health. Complementary feeding (CF) with any liquids or solids before this age risks increasing infant pathogen exposure and offsetting breast milk intake, which may increase risk of nutritional morbidity and early weaning.
Optimal minimum durations ranged from weeks of exclusive breastfeeding associated with maintenance of any breastfeeding at 15 time points. All estimated threshold durations were statistically significant after adjustment. Exclusive breastfeeding is when a baby receives only breast milk, without any additional food or drinks, including water, until 6 months of age.
While breastfeeding beyond 6 months, a baby should receive foods with breast milk until the age of 2 or older. The breastfeeding duration after 2 years depends entirely on the mother and the baby. BACKGROUND: Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are widely acknowledged, opinions and recommendations are strongly divided on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding.
Sincethe World Health Organization has recommended exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Much of the recent debate in developed countries has centred on the micronutrient adequacy, as well as the. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and infant outcome Beforethe WHO recommended that infants be exclu- sively breastfed for 4–6 mo before the introduction of CF (2).
Breast milk is the optimal food for infants and breastfeeding may continue for up to two years and beyond.
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This recommendation, proposed by the Canadian Paediatric Society Nutrition Committee and adopted by the Board of Directors in Marchextends the duration of exclusive breastfeeding from the former range of four to six months. Invest the time in yourself and your baby – for your health and for the bond that will last a lifetime.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office on Women’s Health (OWH) is raising awareness of the importance of breastfeeding to help mothers give their babies the best.
optimal breastfeeding practices frequently result to child malnutrition which is a major cause of more than half of all child deaths (Sokol et al. ), exclusive breastfeeding is regarded as. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months after birth — and breast-feeding in combination with solids foods until at least age 1.
Breast-feeding is recommended as long as you and your baby wish to continue. The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed.
With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are. Breastfeeding Disparities Exist. Fewer non-Hispanic Black infants (%) are ever breastfed compared with non-Hispanic White infants (%) and Hispanic infants (%). 3 Infants eligible for and receiving the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are less likely to ever be breastfed (%) than infants eligible, but not receiving WIC (%), and.
3 Kramer MS, Kakuma R. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review. Adv Exp Med Biol ; 63– 4 World Health Organization, Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding, in, Geneva, World Health Organization, 5 Horta BL, Barros FC, Victora CG, et al.
Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for most infants. It can also reduce the risk for certain health conditions for both infants and mothers. Download pdf icon [PDFKB] Most mothers want to breastfeed but stop early due to a lack of ongoing support.
Certain factors make the difference in whether and how long infants are breastfed. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding is often equated with the optimal age for introduction of solid foods.
However, because CFs are defined by the WHO as any fluid or food other than breast milk, breast milk substitutes are regarded as CFs, and formula-fed infants are deemed to have received CF from the point at which they receive.
Exclusive breastfeeding may also provide up to 98 percent effective contraception in the first six months if the menstrual period has not yet returned and mom continues nightly feedings.
“In terms of exclusive breastfeeding, we are not yet there as only per cent are exclusively breastfed. We are also not yet there as regard continuous breastfeeding for. Not all of breast milk's properties are understood, but its nutrient content is relatively consistent.
Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mother's bloodstream and bodily stores. It has an optimal balance of fat, sugar, water, and protein that is needed for a baby's growth and development. Breastfeeding triggers biochemical reactions which allow for the enzymes, hormones, growth factors.
[Erin also recommends the work of Jack Newman and Dr. Sears (The Breastfeeding Book and And while breastfeeding is best, don’t feel guilty if you can’t breastfeed exclusively.
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Kramer MS & Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ;8:CDMohrbacher, N. Breastfeeding Answers Made lo, TX: Hale Publishing, Riordan, J. and Wambach, K. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, 4th ed. Boston and London: Jones and Bartlett, Sinnott, A. Breastfeeding Older : Free Association Books, Ip S, et al.
A summary of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s evidence report on breastfeeding in.Improving access to skilled counselling for breastfeeding can extend the duration of breastfeeding and promote exclusive breastfeeding, with benefits for babies, families and economies.
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